Short Stories: One Language - Many Voices
20th Century English Short Stories

Fertige Referate

Schwerpunktthema / Sternchenthema ab dem Englisch-Abitur 2007 in Baden-Württemberg

Eine Abi-Serviceseite von

Links, sources, and resources


Die Kurzgeschichten:

The stories on the Web:

An Outpost of Progress (text)

"Shooting an Elephant" (text)

Good Advice Is Rarer Than Rubies
Diesen Text erhalten Sie nur noch in einer Online-Version (als .doc) , wenn Sie bei Google den folgenden Suchbefehl eingeben: advice rubies dawn.bus rehana

Dead Men's Path" (PDF)

This web page is a work in progress. Remember:
"A tree that reaches past your embrace grows from one small seed. Astructure over nine stories high begins with a handful of earth."




Die ZEIT: „Bahnfahren aus Rache“

30 Tage Deutschland.. Mit ICE. Ohne Zugbindung. Beliebige Stopps und Aufenthalte möglich.
Inklusive Probe-BahnCard für 132,50 €.
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Mehr hier.



Kennen Sie unsere Chatroulette-Seite?

> Colonial Encounters



Janet Ferko

Lots of other links to all authors and background

George Orwell, Shooting an Elephant (1936)

@wanduma - Isn't it a trip how farcical the pose of power is? So many decisions to 'do something' are just boyish attempts to not be laughed at by the crowd. I think that's what makes satire such a powerful critique of the powerful, it strikes at their deepest fear. Easy to battle with a grim faced person, impossible to keep up with someone who is laughing at you. (Blog Quelle)

·         "Shooting an Elephant"

1. What is Orwell's point here? Why does he not put it in a more normal or expected position in the essay, for example, right at the beginning or at the end? How is his point unusual or unique?
2. We get several different views of the elephant; describe them and show how this changes our view of the elephant.
3. Can you see a symbolic interpretation for this essay? If so, explain.
4. Why would I have you read this essay? [you should actually ask this about every assignment] (

  • Structure
    12. What paragraphs make up the introduction of the essay? The body of the essay? The conclusion?
    13. With what sentence does the narrative proper begin?
    14. What is the thesis statement of the essay?

15. Why did the natives hate Orwell?
16. Why did Orwell hate his job?
Why did Orwell shoot the elephant? (Quelle)



Nach der Lektüre am Ende der Unterrichtseinheit
1) Kopieren Sie aus dem Web etwa 8-10 (oder mehr) Anfänge von Aufsätzen über "Shooting an Elephant". (Sie finden reichlich davon auf den Bezahlseiten mit fertigen Essays.)
2) Verteilen Sie je einen Textanfang an alle SchülerInnen, so dass sie möglichst viele unterschiedliche Texte haben.
3) Lassen Sie die SchülerInnen aufstehen und sich über ihre Texte unterhalten. Alle sollten dabei mit mindestens fünf verschiedenen Texten in Kontakt kommen.
4) Hausaufgabe: Die SchülerInnen schreiben eine Fortsetzung ihres Aufsatzanfangs, der mindestens so lang ist wie der Ausgangstext.
P.S.: Ein netter Umgang mit Material, das üblicherweise zum Mogeln einlädt.

Communal essay writing
1) Go to or start a Wikipedia page on one of the short stories.
2) Discuss what has been written or start writing your own essay.
3) Get as many classmates involved as possible.
See here.

Picture it
1) Ask students to design a book cover, a logo, an illustration for the web for the Sternchenthema using illustrations from the Web.
2) Students present their products in front of the whole class, to a partner or a group of other students and discuss their choice of images.
3) The work of the students could be collected in a PowerPoint presentation.
4) See the example above.


On the eve of independence for the colony of South Yemen, the last British governor hosted a dinner party attended by Denis Healey, then the minister for defense. Over the final sundown cocktail, as the flag was about to be lowered over the capital of Aden, the governor turned to Healey and said, "You know, Minister, I believe that in the long view of history, the British Empire will be remembered only for two things." What, Healey was interested to know, were these imperishable aspects? "The game of soccer. And the expression 'fuck off.' " >>>



Doris Lessing, The Second Hut (1964)

Listen Mr Oxford don

Me not no Oxford don
me a simple immigrant
from Clapham Common
I didn’t graduate
I immigrate

But listen Mr Oxford don
I’m a man on de run
and a man on de run
is a dangerous one

I ent have no gun
I ent have no knife
but mugging de Queen’s English
is the story of my life

I dont need no axe
to split/ up yu syntax
I dont need no hammer
to mash/ up yu grammar

I warning you Mr Oxford don
I’m a wanted man
and a wanted man
is a dangerous one

Dem accuse me of assault
on de Oxford dictionary/
imagine a concise peaceful man like me/
dem want me serve time
for inciting rhyme to riot
but I rekking it quiet
down here in Clapham Common

I’m not a violent man Mr Oxford don
I only armed wit mih human breath
but human breath
is a dangerous weapon

So mek dem send one big word after me
I ent serving no jail sentence
I slashing suffix in self defence
I bashing future wit present tense
and if necessary

I making de Queen’s English accessory/ to my offence

from Mangoes and Bullets, Serpent’s Tail, 1985

> Cross-cultural Experiences


Chinua Achebe, Dead Men’s Path (1972)


R. K. Narayan, A Horse and Two Goats (1965)



Schreiben für die ganze Welt
Ein Eintrag zu Qaisra Shahraz und ihrer Kurzgeschichte A Pair of Jeans fehlt in der englischen Wikipedia. Das wäre doch ein guter Anlass, in Gruppen einen Eintrag verfassen zu lassen und ihn dann schrittweise zu verbessern. Kopieren von anderen Websites gilt natürlich nicht.

P.S.: Der Eintrag könnte natürlich auch auf der ZUM-Seite erscheinen.



Ngugi wa Thiong’o, A Meeting in the Dark (1974)


> Postcolonial Consequences



Muriel Spark, The Black Madonna (1963)

  • Muriel Spark präsentiert vom British Council
  • Muriel Spark in der Wikipedia
  • Picture of Muriel Spark
  • "''The Black Madonna'' is little more than a fancy illustration of that old maxim, you'd better be careful about what you pray for, because you might get what you want. In ''The Black Madonna,'' a statue of the Madonna carved out of dark wood appears to grant the wishes of devout parishioners; a similar sense of the otherworldly intrudes in many of these stories. Even when the context is not overtly religious, the implication remains that the supernatural exists, that commonplace lives are subject to mysteries that passeth man's understanding." (Quelle: NYT)
  • "Anyone looking for a Spark short story as an appetiser to his or her
    reading or teaching of Jean Bro d i e would do well to choose ‘The Black
    Madonna’ (1967) . This story features one of Spark’s hallmark modes, tragifarce,
    as the woman of a white couple prays to the statue of the Black
    Madonna in search of an elusive fertility, the result being that she gives birth
    to a black baby. (Icons, female icons in particular, tend to play nasty tricks in
    Spark ’s fiction.) The point of the story is to attack those who, like the couple,
    package life into convenient, static symbols. The couple are trendily in
    favour of their black icon, but put their black baby up for adoption. Their
    theoretical regard for the ethnic is shown to be just that: theoretical. Their
    (anticipated) hypocrisy (for such is the extra-temporal knowledge of the
    Divinity) is rewarded by a literalism. Narrow outlook is rewarded by
    narrowly-answered prayer. Our Lady brings poetic justice to the situation."
  • "Invoking the assistance of the Almighty is always a risky business in Mrs. Spark's fictional world, for your prayers may be answered. In ''The Black Madonna,'' for instance, a rather complacent English Catholic couple pray to a black statue of the Virgin Mary for offspring and are rewarded with a black baby - an embarrassing reminder of some ancestor's indiscretion." (Quelle)
  • ""The "Black Madonna" seems at first to present a more hopeful view of marriage. Lou and Ray are so happily married in Whitney Clay that they can find very little to disagree about at all. The marriage that Muriel Spark portrays here is rather too perfect, the reader is ready for something catastrophic to happen and is not disappointed. By the divine intervention of the statue of the Madonna at their local church Lou conceives the longed for child, the couple hope will make their marriage complete. Unexpectedly the baby is born black and Lou rejects it. Trust in the relationship breaks down as Ray suspects Lou of an extra-marital relationship with Oxford St John, a coloured friend. After blood tests establish the baby isn't St John's the couple agree to start again in London. The relationship has survived, but we wonder at what cost and how much longer it will last." (Quelle)
  • Black Madonna (Wikipedia)
  • In Search of the Black Madonna (Guardian)
  • Obituary (Guardian)




If you're going to do a thing, you should do it thoroughly. If you're going to be a Christian, you may as well be a Catholic. Muriel Spark


Salman Rushdie, Good Advice Is Rarer than Rubies (1994)

  • Salman Rushdie präsentiert vom British Council
  • Salman Rushdie - An Overview
  • Salman Rushdie in der Wikipedia
  • Picture of the author
  • Good Advice Is Rarer Than Rubies (text)
  • "The short story 'Good Advice is Rarer than Rubies' is set in Pakistan, whereas Rushdie was born and grew up in Bombay in India. India and Pakistan are neighbours, but they have not always been on good terms."
  • "In the East section are three stories written almost as though R. K. Narayan wrote them. "Good Advice Is Rarer Than Rubies" is about a young Muslim woman seeking an immigrant visa to U.K. who deliberately botches up her interview with the consular officer for she prefers to stay home. The story has an O.Henry-ish ending." (Quelle)
  • Suchbefehl Pakistan + history +India bei
  • Director David Cronenberg interviews Salman Rushdie
  • Glossary of Colloqialisms in Rushdie's Works
  • Audio Interviews (BBC)
  • S. Rushdie: The New Empire Within Britain
  • Miss Rehana is supposedly going to live with a man in England that she doesn't know. The engagement was arranged when she was nine years old. How do you feel about arranged marriages? Do you think that it is completely out of question that this type of marriage is more lasting and rational/reasonable than love marriages? Consider the large number of divorces in Norway and the number of children involved. (Quelle)
  • "In "Good Advice Is Rarer Than Rubies ," from Salman Rushdie's collection of short stories, East West, the very young and very beautiful Rehana is a character, who in spite of her credulity, emerges unharmed at the end of the story. The plot reveals a familiar tale to visa seekers : approaching the British Consulate in Islamabad, a self-styled expert in red-tape-ism offers up his services to the pretty girl, quite obviously at a loss because of the complexity of the visa-obtaining process.
    Rehana succeeds in escaping a devastating life, that is by coming very close to marrying a man a lot older than she is and moreover someone she has never laid eyes on because it is her parents who have arranged the marriage. This arrangement took place when Rehana Begum (madam in Urdu) was only nine years old and the groom to be, a certain Mustafa Dar, was aged thirty. The "strange, big-eyed, independent girl" (p.6) liberates herself from this forced marriage deal despite the "advisor," Muhammed Ali's attempts at encouraging her to leave for England to join her husband who lives there. Rehana is fully aware that she has emancipated herself by deciding to stay in Lahore and make a living in her chosen field, as a nanny or ayah (p.15) : "Her last smile...was the happiest thing (Muhammed) had ever seen"(p.16). Rehana like Dina Shroff in A Fine Balance, knows the real dangers of arranged marriage, where the girl very often has little choice concerning who she is about share the rest of her life with in wedlock. Dina is more than mindful of the perils involved : "families decide everything. Then the woman becomes the property of the husband's family, to be abused and bullied. It's a terrible system, turns the nicest girls into witches."
  • In "Good Advice Is Rarer Than Rubies," a con man accosts a young Pakistani woman who is waiting outside a British consulate. She tells him that she is betrothed to a man in London, and he offers to sell her a phony British passport. He is later startled to learn that she has no desire to move to England, that she actually wants to sabotage her chances of emigration. (Quelle)
  • Another summary of the story
  • Dave: Now, the all-important question, supplied by a friend of mine, actually: boxers or briefs?
    Rushdie: Boxers, for preference, but I still have some old briefs lying around.
  • Aus einem Forum:Question: "Habt ihr geschrieben, daß Rehana eigentlich gar nicht nach England will ? So war heut der Tenor um mich herum in Englisch, unsere Lehrerin hat auch ein bißchen was vom Erwartungshorizont (stand da auch so drin) vorgelesen, aber nicht viel, weil wir nicht wollten. :>

Ich hab das nicht geschrieben, soll angeblich wegen dem Altersunterschied zu ihrem Verlobten sein"

Answer:Genau das habe ich geschrieben. Schließlich lebt die ja in guten Verhältnissen dafür, dass sie eine indische Frau ist, die ja eigentlich immer noch so gut wie keine Rechte haben. Sie hat nen guten Job, der ihr Spaß macht, sie kann sich es erlauben dem Muhammad Ali son Döner da auszugeben, was zwar jetzt irgendwie überinterpretiert ist, aber doch schon irgendwie ein Zeichen ist, dass es ihr nicht soo schlecht geht um in Englang ein neues Leben mit einem Typen, der 21 Jahre älter ist und den sie nicht kennt und als "Stranger" bezeichnet anfangen zu müssen. Deswegen ist sie ja glücklich als sie nicht nach England "darf". Das Gespräch bzw. die dämlichen Ratschläge von dem Ali haben ihr quasi in gewisser Hinsicht die Augen geöffnet während Ali selber scheinbar keine Entwicklung während des Gesprächs durchmacht. Der fragt sich ja selbst gegen Ende als sie sagt, dass er nicht traurig sein muss, wieso die nicht nach England will. Vielleicht eine Art persönliches "Trauma" oder sowas weil er nie die Möglichkeit hatte nach England zu reisen um dort zu leben, deswegen trickst er seine "Kunden" wahrscheinlich auch normalerweise immer aus wie es in der Einleitung stand.

/E: Mir fällt grade ein, dass ich den letzten Satz hier mit dem persönlichen Trauma gar nicht erwähnt habe. Verdammt."



PowerPoint Präsentationen zu S. Rushdie finden:
filetype:ppt salman-rushdie


Ready made PowerPoint presentations etc.
Es ist gut, wenn SchülerInnen gut präsentieren können. Aufgabe des Englischlehrers aber ist es nicht, ihnen PowerPoint beizubringen
Im WWW gibt es Tuasende von PowerPoint Präsentationen. Diese kann man vielfältig nutzen:
1) Hausaufgabe: Sichte diese PowerPoint Präsentation, wähle fünf Folien aus und präsentiere sie.
2) Hausaufgabe: Sichte die PowerPoint Präsentationen im WWW über Joseph Conrad (Suchbefehl: filetype:ppt joseph-conrad) im Web und gestalte daraus eine eigene. Präsentiere aber nichts, was du nicht selbst verstehst.
3) Stelle mit Bildern aus dem WWW eine PowerPoint Präsentation zu einer der Kurzgeschichten zusammen. Die Präsentation sollte ganz überwiegend aus Bildern bestehen, die du dann erläuterst. Vermeide auf jeden Fall längere Textpassagen!


Klausur mit Bewertungskriterien zu diesem Text (aus NRW)

Der Textauszug, der in der Klausur verwandt wurde, reichte von 'Let me understand you,' she was saying.
'You are proposing I should commit a crime...' bis zum Ende.

Noch einmal die Klausur, diesmal mit dem Text



Qaisra Shahraz, A Pair of Jeans (1988)


Neu: Jetzt noch bessere Referate/Seminararbeiten/Präsentationen!

Stefan und die Sikhs - Minderheiten in GB

Ein lehrreiche Fortsetzungsgeschichte zum Suchen im WWW




Total population: 58.8 million

Muslim population: 1.6 million (2.8%)

Background: The UK has a long history of contact with Muslims, with links forged from the Middle Ages onwards. In the 19th Century Yemeni men came to work on ships, forming one of the country's first Muslim communities. In the 1960s, significant numbers of Muslims arrived as people in the former colonies took up offers of work. Some of the first were East African Asians, while many came from south Asia. Permanent communities formed and at least 50% of the current population was born in the UK. Significant communities with links to Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Somalia and the Balkans also exist. The 2001 Census showed one third of the Muslim population was under 16 - the highest proportion for any group. It also highlighted high levels of unemployment, low levels of qualifications and low home ownership. The UK favours multiculturalism, an idea shared by other countries which, in general terms, accepts all cultures as having equal value and has influence over how government engages with minorities.

Sources: Total population - Office for National Statistics, 2001 figures; Muslim population - Office for National Statistics, 2001 figures.

Hanif Kureishi, My Son the Fanatic (1994)


Essay topic:

Christians & Jewish martyrs say; "I will die for what I believe." - A Muslim martyr says; "You will die for what I believe."




Nach der Lektüre Die Klasse recherchiert in Gruppen die Bradford Race Riots von 2001 und schreibt einen Text dazu, den sie abschließend oder fortlaufend in der englischen Wikipedia veröffentlicht. (Es gibt dort zu diesem Thema derzeit (30. Nov. 2006) keinen eigenen Eintrag!)

Die Klasse würde also ihr Produkt weltweit publizieren und ggf. im Austausch mit den Kritikern ihres Textes mehr zum Thema lernen. Das Risiko ist natürlich, dass der Beitrag nach einer Abstimmung unter einigen wenigen WikipedialeserInnen gelöscht wird. Daher sollte man immer die verschiedenen eigenen Versionen speichern. Und nicht frustriert sein, falls das geschieht. Die englischsprachige Wikipdiagemeinde ist aber wesentlich toleranter als die deutsche.

Dieses Projekt ließe sich auch gemeinsam mit anderen Klassen bundesweit bearbeiten oder mit einer Partnerschule in Deutschland oder anderswo.




Die AutorInnen in der englischen Wikipedia





Chinua Achebe

Joseph Conrad

Hanif Kureishi

Doris Lessing

William Somerset Maugham

R. K. Narayan

George Orwell

Salman Rushdie

Muriel Spark

Ngugi wa Thiong’o wünscht viel Erfolg beim Englischabi

Linksammlung: Lesen und Interpretieren von Kurzgeschichten, Unterrichtsmaterialien, geschichtlicher Hintergrund, Tipps für ein Referat, Web Quests, Abitipps etc.







Geschichtlicher Hintergrund




Fall of the British Empire (ausführliche Videodoku)


One Language - Many Voices - Wiki zumThema von

Postcolonial Literature - Problems with the term

Britisches Imperium (Wiki)


Schwerpunktthemen Abitur 2007 (PDF)

Short Story bei Wikipedia

British Empire bei

Intercultural Insights

Schriftliche Abiturprüfung Schwerpunktthemen One-Language (bei Google)

Interpreting Short Stories

The Imperial Archive

Ethnic Minorities in Britain

Ein wissenschaftlicher Aufsatz zum Schwerpunktthema bei Cornelsen

Writing about unseen fiction texts

The British Empire

Guardian: Islam, race and British identity

Materialien vom Diesterweg Verlag (Downloads)

"Identities" Ein Multimediaprojekt

The tardy evolution of the British short story

The Boer Wars (Wikipedia)
The Mau Mau Uprising (Wikipedia)

Interviews with people from Kenya, India, and Pakistan (free registration necessary, it's worth it!)


Game: Name that literary element

Tipps & Tricks für ein Referat

Short Story Analysis A Questionnaire

Graphic Organisers

Characterization (Worksheet)

Short Story Analysis Sheet

Questions for Short Story Analysis

> Rules of Notice for Reading Fiction - A checklist (DOC)

Close Analysis of a Short Story

How to keep a reading log

How to read a document

Killer Applications for the Oral Abitur


Es gibt eine sehr gute Website, Zu T.C. Boyles "The Tortilla Curtain" die von SchülerInnen gestaltet wurde. Ihr könntet für dieses Sternchenthema auch eine solche Website erstellen. Vielleicht bekommt ihr dann im Gästebuch auch Lob wie dieses zu lesen:

"Ich bin euch sehr dankbar für diese Homepage. Ich schreibe demnächst Abi und hätte das Buch dafür lesen müssen. Hab ich aber nicht, weil es unglaublich ätzend finde."


Suchmaschinen für SchülerInnen



Discovery Education


Cyber Sleuth




Four NETS for better searching

Wir hoffen, diese Hilfe für eure Hausaufgaben findet ihr nützlich. Unsere Hausaufgabenhilfe ist - wie immer - gratis.



Infos zum Thema bei


British Empire

Joseph Conrad

George Orwell


Immigration Britain


Es lohnt sich, mit dieser Suchmaschine zu arbeiten. Wir empfehlen: Recherchieren Sie die Themen dieser Seite weiter mit




Heart of Darkness (Spark Notes)

Read this, then adapt this text to fit "An Outpost Of Progress"

Enriched Classics: The Heart of Darkness

GradeSaver: Joseph Conrad

Joseph Conrad - Student Essays

Heart of Darkness - A Mind Map hilft uns beim Sternchenthema leider nicht weiter. aber bei Heart of Darkness schon.

Die Hybris der Erhellung des Tropendunkels

Assessing a Short Story (for teachers)

Rules of Notice for Reading Fiction - A checklist (DOC)

Getting Kids into the Reading Game: You Gotta Know the Rules (PDF)

Teachers' Guides (Random House)

Rudyard Kipling: The Miracle of Purun Bhagat (1895) > PDF

Rudyard Kipling "Beyond the Pale"

Rudyard Kipling "Thrown Away"

"The White Man's Burden" And Its Critics (Lots of Kipling Resources)

Somerset Maugham: The Outstation (text)

"By Any Other Name" by Santha Rama Rau (Short story with questions)

The role of food and consumption in Kureishi's The Black Album  (Fertiges Referat)

Hanif Kureishis "The Buddha of Suburbia"

Hanif Kureishis "My Beautiful Laundrette"

Glossary of Literary Terms

Stylistic/Rhetorical Devices

Elements of the Short Story (Lesson Plans)

Anregung für das Layout und die Aufgabenstellung von Arbeitsblättern: Penguin Readers Factsheet : Short Stories of Sherlock Holmes

Rattawut Lapcharoensap und seine Kurzgeschichte "Farangs" sind nicht Teil des Schwerpunktthemas, aber thematisch verwandt. (Review)
"At the Café Lovely"

Granta 92: The view from Africa

Using literature in the ESL classroom (study kits)

Tips for judging the value of Internet sites:
What is the site's purpose? Will its information be unbiased?
Who sponsors the site? What are the organization's values or
goals? Can you contact the sponsors should questions arise?
Is the information well-documented? Does it provide citations to
sources used in obtaining the information? Are individual articles
signed or attributed?
When was it published? Is the date of the last revision posted
somewhere on the page?
What are the author's credentials? Is the author cited frequently
in other sources?
Lastly, how does the value of the Web-based information you've
found compare with other available sources, such as print?

British Empire. 19th century map

Map of the British Empire

Atlas of the British Empire (PDF 26 pages)

Timeline of British Empire History (PDF, illustrated, 23 pages)

British Empire (BBC)

The British Empire - A survey

Anglo Boer War Museum

The Congo Reform Movement

African History: Colonialism (kommentierte Linksammlung)

Theories of Colonialism and Postcolonialism

Internet Modern History Sourcebook: Imperialism

Imperialism (The History Channel)

>  Emperor's English - Language as a Technology of Rule in British West Africa

The Victorian Web

Victoriana from

>  Victorian Imperialism (from the Norton Anthology of English Literature mit Textquellen und Karikaturen

Victoria, Queen of England - Biography by James Parton,(1868)

Queen Victoria on

Queen Victoria and other British and Europen royalty in pictures

248 Images of Queen Victoria

Google Bildersuche Queen Victoria

Paintings commissioned by Queen Victoria

Das viktorianische Zeitalter (Planet Wissen)

Basiswissen Imperialismus

PowerPoint presentations

Imperialism - A PowerPoint presentation (PDF)

European Imperialism 1850-1914
- A PowerPoint presentation

Roots of Western Perceptions of Africa - A PowerPoint presentation

Introduction to postcolonial literature -
A PowerPoint presentation

Postcolonial Studies (includes excerpts from "Shooting an Elephant") A PowerPoint presentation

Using Figurative Language - A PowerPoint presentation



Web Quest

Creating WebQuests

Step by Step Directions

Imperialism in Africa - A Web Quest

WebQuest: The Scramble for Africa—and the Postcolonial Response

Heart of Darkness - Web Quest

Immigration to Britain: Caribbean

One world, one language?

> Materialienreiche Arbeit mit vielen Quellen:Uni Freiburg: The Politics of English - as a European and as a World Language Teil 1     Teil 2  


Ethnic Minorities in Britain (2001 census)

Destination UK (BBC)

Schülerwebseite über "Immigration to Britain"

400 years of Muslim deportation from Britain

Islam - Empire of Faith  (PBS)

Race, racism and life - as seen through the eyes of the Britkids (Junge Briten führen durch ihr Leben)

How racist are you?   Quiz

Black Presence: Asian and Black History in Britain, 1500-1850

Short History of Immigration to Britain

Ethnic Minorities in the Inner Cities

How to Avoid Culture Shock  (BBC)

As English Spreads, Speakers
Morph it into World Tongue

Global American  (PBS)



The India Museum

BBC Asian Network

Immigration to Britain: South Asian

South Asias Studies

The Indian Diaspora in Britain (PDF)

India Virtual Library

India History Virtual Library

Culture of Pakistan (Wikipedia)



University of Florida: Africana

Nelson Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom (Excerpts)

Nelson Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom (Links)

African masks

The Internet Domains of countries in Africa from A to Z

The Coldstream Guards in Rhodesia

The Duke of Connaught, English Grand Master, leading a masonic procession, Bulawayo, Rhodesia, 1910

Musical Instruments of Sub-Saharan Africa

A programme of Zimbabwean music (BBC audio)

Education and Teaching Resources on Africa

Congo - A cultural profile project (Canadian)

Congo - UN Website (beware of political bias!)

Africa: The Art of a Continent (Guggenheim Museum)

>   Africa - PBS Website

Africa for Kids (PBS

National Museum of African Art

Afropop Worldwide

African Odyssey Interactive

East African Photographs 1860-1960  More

Africa - Lesson Plans (PBS

How to write about Africa (by Binyavanga Wainaina)


Rudyard Kipling, The White Man's Burden (1899)

Take up the White Man's burden--
Send forth the best ye breed--
Go bind your sons to exile
To serve your captives' need;
To wait in heavy harness,
On fluttered folk and wild--
Your new-caught, sullen peoples,
Half-devil and half-child.

What is it today's reader finds so repugnant about Kipling's poem? If you were a citizen of a colonized territory, how would you respond to Kipling?

Wikipedia Eintrag

Take up the White Man's burden--
In patience to abide,
To veil the threat of terror
And check the show of pride;
By open speech and simple,
An hundred times made plain
To seek another's profit,
And work another's gain.

Take up the White Man's burden--
The savage wars of peace--
Fill full the mouth of Famine
And bid the sickness cease;
And when your goal is nearest
The end for others sought,
Watch sloth and heathen Folly
Bring all your hopes to nought.

Take up the White Man's burden--
No tawdry rule of kings,
But toil of serf and sweeper--
The tale of common things.
The ports ye shall not enter,
The roads ye shall not tread,
Go mark them with your living,
And mark them with your dead.

Take up the White Man's burden--
And reap his old reward:
The blame of those ye better,
The hate of those ye guard--
The cry of hosts ye humour
(Ah, slowly!) toward the light:--
"Why brought he us from bondage,
Our loved Egyptian night?"

Take up the White Man's burden--
Ye dare not stoop to less--
Nor call too loud on Freedom
To cloke (1) your weariness;
By all ye cry or whisper,
By all ye leave or do,
The silent, sullen peoples
Shall weigh your gods and you.

Take up the White Man's burden--
Have done with childish days--
The lightly proferred laurel, (2)
The easy, ungrudged praise.
Comes now, to search your manhood
Through all the thankless years
Cold, edged with dear-bought wisdom,
The judgment of your peers!

Painting the Congo

“…Going up that river was like traveling back to the earliest beginnings of the world,
when vegetation rioted on the earth and the big trees were kings. An empty stream, a
great silence, an impenetrable forest. The air was warm, thick, heavy, sluggish. There
was no joy in the brilliance of sunshine. The long stretches of the waterway ran on,
deserted, into the gloom of over-shadowed distances. In silvery sand-banks hippos and
alligators sunned themselves side by side. The broadening waters flowed through a mob
of wooded islands; you lost your way on that river as you would on a desert, and butted
all day long against shoals, trying to find the channel, til you thought yourself bewitched
and cut off forever from everything you had known once—somewhere—far away—in
another existence perhaps … And this stillness of life did not in the least resemble a
peace. It was the stillness of an implacable force brooding over an inscrutable intention.”
Conrad, Heart of Darkness,

"The conquest of the earth, which mostly means the taking it away from those who have a different complexion or slightly flatter noses than ourselves, is not a pretty thing when you look into it too much. What redeems it is the idea only. An idea at the back of it; not a sentimental pretense but an idea; and an unselfish belief in the idea--something you can set up, and bow down before, and offer a sacrifice to. . . ." (Marlow in "Heart of Darkness")

What do you think of when the word "Africa" is mentioned? Many Americans envision a land of famine, civil war, poverty, bombings, and disease. Although Africa clearly has its share of challenges, these difficulties often are exaggerated when people lack understanding of the continent.

In contrast to these negative images, a real dynamism is associated with many features of Africa. Consider four brief examples:

* The size and diversity of Africa is enormous. It is more than three times the size of the continental United States and includes fifty-three countries, more than 1,700 languages, and over 700 million people. (The United States has about 250 million people.)
* Africa supplies the world with many natural resources--from agricultural products including coffee and tea to industrial resources such as copper and cobalt. More than half of the world's diamonds and gold are supplied by African countries.
* Democracy is spreading across Africa. Twenty years ago the continent had very few democracies. Today, although people debate exactly what constitutes a democracy, most scholars would agree that 50 to 60 percent of African countries are now democracies. South Africa is probably the most dramatic example of a country that has moved from an extremely authoritarian regime to an open democracy, when apartheid came crashing down in 1994.
* Africa's family structure is alive and well. Retirement homes are rare because older people live with their families. Children are greatly valued. And extended family members take care of each other. Many African languages do not even have a word for "niece" or "nephew" because people regard the children of a sister or brother as practically their own children. (Author:
York Bradshaw on the University of Indiana Website)

Ref: st07emp




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Autor: Dierk Andresen - Biberach Begonnen: 27.2.06 - Stand 14.06. 2009
Dierk Andresen unterrichtet Englisch an einer beruflichen Schule in Oberschwaben.

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